We obtained nine Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates successively isolated from a single patient. Four pairs (M1–M4 and NM1–NM4) obtained simultaneously from the same site showed different colony types, mucoid and non-mucoid, while the final isolate (M5) was isolated alone from the blood and showed a mucoid phenotype. The whole genome of isolate M5 was sequenced de novo using the PacBio RSII system, while the others were sequenced with an Illumina Hiseq4000 and mapped to the genome sequences of M5. To identify insertions or deletions in the cps locus, we amplified and sequenced cpslocus genes. We identified insertion sequence (IS) elements in several genes of the cps locus or one amino acid substitution in WcaJ in all non-mucoid isolates. Five additional amino acid alterations in RpsJ, LolE, Lon-2, PpsE, and a hypothetical protein were detected in some mucoid and non-mucoid isolates. Based on the genome data and cps locus sequences, the mucoid phenotype may have been lost or converted into the non-mucoid phenotype because of the insertion of IS elements or amino acid alterations at this locus. We inferred a within-host evolutionary scenario, in which non-mucoid variants emerged repeatedly from mucoid isolates, but may be short-lived because of their low fitness.