Follicular-patterned tumors of the thyroid in the adult population frequently harbor RAS mutations or PAX8-PPARG rearrangement, but little is known about molecular profiles in the pediatric patients with thyroid tumors, which is rare. To identify the molecular profile of pediatric follicular-patterned tumors, we enrolled 41 pediatric patients with follicular-patterned tumors from two institutions. We did next-generation sequencing using a mutation panel targeting 49 thyroid-tumor-related genes and a fusion panel targeting 88 types of thyroid-related gene fusions. We identified nonsynonymous mutations in at least one target gene in most of the tumors (28/41, 68%). Somatic DICER1 mutations (22%, n = 9) were the most common genetic alteration, followed by mutations of NRAS (15%), FGFR3 (15%), PTEN (12%), and STK11 (10%). Infrequent genetic alterations (≤ 5% of all cases) included mutations of HRAS, APC, TSHR, CTNNB1, TP53, EIF1AX, FGFR4, GNAS, RET, and SOS1, and gene fusion of THADA-IGF2BP3. DICER1 and RAS mutations were mutually exclusive. No patients had tumors related to the DICER1 syndrome or the Cowden syndrome. There was no significant difference in total mutation burden or distribution between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma. In the literature, the DICER1 mutation has been reported in 20 to 53% of pediatric patients with follicular-patterned tumors. In conclusion, our study reinforces the role of the DICER1 mutation in the development of pediatric thyroid tumors. Gene fusions rarely occur in pediatric follicular-patterned tumors. Mutation or gene fusion alone could not distinguish benign from malignant follicular-patterned tumors in pediatric patients.