Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, an increase in the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A and sequence type 320 (19A-ST320) isolates have been observed worldwide including in South Korea. We conducted a genome-wide analysis to investigate the temporal genetic changes in 26 penicillin-non-susceptible 19A-ST320 pneumococcal isolates from a hospital in South Korea over a period of 17 years (1999; 2004 to 2015). Although the strains were isolated from a single hospital and showed the same genotype and serotype, a whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis revealed that the S. pneumoniae isolates showed more extensive genetic variations compared with a reference isolate obtained in 1999. A phylogenetic analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed that the pneumococcal isolates from South Korea were not grouped together into limited clusters among the 19A-ST320 isolates from several continents. It was predicted that recombination events occurred in 11 isolates; larger numbers of SNPs were found within recombination blocks compared with point mutations identified in five isolates. WGS data indicated that S. pneumoniae 19A-ST320 isolates might have been introduced into South Korea from various other countries. In addition, it was revealed that recombination may play a great role in the evolution of pneumococci even in very limited places and periods.